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Martin Voracek, Maryanne L. Fisher, Angelika Hofhansl, P. Vivien Rekkas and Nina Ritthammer. The classic experiments by Clark and Hatfield on sex differences in compliance to offers of dates, apartment visits, and casual sex, and the related informal project of Molzer served as the foundation for the present study.
However, whereas individuals in these investigations directly approached opposite-sex participants, our research employed surveys to gauge compliance. The sex of the participant did not ificantly effect the. Relative to the work, the compliance rate of males was overestimated, while that of females was underestimated. Common knowledge suggests that males and females react very differently to sexual offers, especially when the individuals making the offer are unfamiliar.
These sex differences in compliance to sexual offers have been documented in a classic series of naturalistic experiments conducted by Clark and Hatfield and Clark Although these studies are well-known and are frequently cited see recollections in Clark and Hatfield,we have been unable to find any documentation of their scientific replication. Our search produced only onea rather happenstance, «real-life» informal project conducted by an Austrian magazine Molzer, ; see Voracek, Hofhansl and Fisher, Therefore, the goal of the current study was to further investigate sex differences in hypothesized reactions to sexual offers using the scenarios employed in the Clark and Hatfield studies.
Using a written survey method, we asked male and female participants to estimate Housewives seeking real sex St Marys rate of consent of a typical man or a typical woman to sexual offers. We begin this paper by reviewing the necessary background for the present research; namely, the s of Clark and Hatfield and Clark Then, we present an analysis of the procedures used in these investigations, and review the evidence from the informal project of Molzerfollowed by the presentation of the current study. The Clark and Hatfield experiments: sex differences in compliance to sexual offers. In their series of three identically deed naturalistic field experiments that were performed on a college campus site, Clark and HatfieldStudies 1 and 2 and ClarkStudy 1 documented a consistent rate of zero receptivity of females to offers of casual sex by male strangers.
In these studies, confederates «lures» approached opposite-sex subjects of a similar age and, after a standard introduction text, «I have been noticing you around campus. I find you to be very attractive», randomly asked them one of three questions: «Would you go out with me tonight? The three experimental conditions are thus located on a continuum of increasing sexual explicitness, with the Date Condition being the least explicit, the Casual Sex Condition being the most explicit, and the Apartment Visit Condition ranging intermediate.
In Studies 1 and 2 of Clark and Hatfieldthe authors tested the research question of how receptive males versus females were to sexual invitations. Outcomes could be envisioned which would have been in accord with one of two hypotheses, namely the «traditional hypothesis» versus the «androgyny hypothesis» Clark and Hatfield,p. According to the first hypothesis being grounded in sociobiological as well as in cultural contigency and social stereotype theoriessex differences in receptivity to sexual offers were expected, with males readily agreeing to sexual encounters, while females not agreeing.
According to the second hypothesis being grounded in sociological Housewives seeking real sex St Marys sex-role theories of increasing androgyny of males and females in present-day Western civiliationsno sex differences in receptivity were expected, and it could have turned out that either males as well as females both readily agree to sexual propositions or that males as well as females mostly refrain from such propositions. The three experiments yielded unambiguously strong sex differences in receptivity to sexual offers, thereby supporting the traditional hypothesis, while refuting the androgyny hypothesis.
Importantly, the of the third experiment Clark,Study 1identically deed, but conducted about a decade later in the late s than Studies 1 and 2 of Clark and Hatfieldsuggested that the emerging AIDS epidemic had little, if any, influence on the sex-differentiated patterns in willingness to engage in casual sexual encounters. This further hypothesis was not supported by the data, because a large sex difference in receptivity to sexual offers emerged again.
We emphasize that this fourth experiment was differently deed than the three experiments and thus comparisons might be difficult or even not appropriate. And finally, as admitted by the author Clark,p. Therefore, for clarity, Study 2 of Clark is here omitted from further discussion, and we now turn to a summarizing overview of the findings of Studies 1 and 2 of Clark and Hatfield and Study 1 of Clark These compliance rates demonstrate that male subjects became increasingly interested as the offers by the female lures became more sexually explicit.
The authors also noted that a large portion of males approached in the Casual Sex Condition that refused the offer, did so apologetically. This finding indicated that they might have accepted this invitation had they not currently been in a relationship. In contrast, only a few females accepted the offer for an Apartment Visit 6.
In other words, there was very low in fact, zero receptivity of female subjects to explicit offers of casual sex. Further, unlike male subjects, females did not appear apologetic when declining the offer for Casual Sex, suggesting that that their relationship status was not a salient factor in their refusal. The Clark and Hatfield findings are in accord with evolved psychological differences between the sexes with respect to short-term mating and the desire for sexual variety.
These differences are emphasized in Sexual Strategies Theory Buss and Schmitt,and have been documented in numerous cross-cultural comparisons Schmitt and Members of the International Sexuality Description Project, In essence, these comparisons and Sexual Strategies Theory reveal that the majority of males find the idea of sex with a complete stranger appealing, whereas most females find this idea unappealing. Converting the aggregate percentages of affirmative reactions from the Clark and Hatfield studies into an effect-size metric demonstrates the magnitude of this sex difference Voracek et al, The statistically inificant difference in compliance rates for males Therefore, conventional benchmarks established for effect-size evaluation in terms of the d measure also apply for the d 1 measure.
Consequently, the sex difference in the Date Condition outcomes must be regarded as a small effect, which is the conventional interpretation for d or d 1 values smaller than 0. However, the For illustration, they are larger than the magnitude of sex differences on most physical traits, such as weight, height, and physical strength.
As a second example, differences as large as 1. Thus, there is little room left for doubt in the assertion that the sex differences in compliance to sexual offers, as unveiled by the Clark and Hatfield experiments, are among the largest sex differences ever found in psychological research Geary, ; Mealey, Over the past decade, the two papers by Clark and Hatfield have achieved the status of «citation classics» in the fields of evolutionary psychology e.
Furthermore, a hypothetical form of the Casual Sex Condition, deated as the Sexual Proposition Question, has been used in research on short-term sexual strategies Mathes, King, Miller and Reed, Parenthetically, we note that the introduction used by the lures to approach participants in the Clark and Hatfield experiments «I have been noticing you around campus. I find you to be very attractive»is, to our knowledge, the only experimental stimulus in the history of psychology to become lyrics in a popular song these lines appear in «Would you? Given the high citation rate of Clark and Hatfield and Clarkwe find it amazing that there are no scientific replications or extensions of the original research in existence.
In fact, the only reiteration we found occurred by mere happenstance Molzer, and was initiated by an Austrian magazine. In this real-life test of the Clark and Hatfield findings, a male journalist approached females in various public, urban locations within the German cities of Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich, and simply asked «Do you want to sleep with me?
Therefore, he unwittingly implemented the third Casual Sex condition of the Clark and Hatfield experiments. As the reporter subsequently had sex with willing participants, the experiment provided an important verification of the initial response. The requestor was in his late twenties and apparently with above-average attractiveness. The resulting magazine article was comprised of single-paragraph vignettes, documenting the contextual and outcome details of each approach.
One woman was excluded from the analysis as she identified herself as a lesbian, bringing the participant total to Firstly, whereas male lures in the Clark and Hatfield study encountered a zero rate of receptivity from females in the Casual Sex Condition, the advances of the reporter were accepted by 6 out of 99 heterosexual females, yielding an acceptance rate of 6. Altman, Machin, Bryant and Gardner, Secondly, most five out of six successful advances were made in indoor locations and four out of six occurred during the evening.
Thirdly, as the reporter did not restrict himself to females within his own age group but instead approached females spanning a wide age range from 16 years to 50 years or olderan interesting age effect was evidenced. On average, females who rejected his offer were approximately five years younger than females who accepted his offer. Fourthly, unlike the Clark and Hatfield studies, ten females were inclined to make closer acquaintance e.
Finally, eight females reacted apologetically, referring to their relationship status partnered or married as the reason for declining his offer, and, in five further cases, current time pressure was given as the reason for declining the offer. Although informative, the findings of Molzer cannot in and of themselves discredit the findings of Clark and Hatfield, as it was a limited and happenstance exploration of the topic.
However, it highlights the importance of contextual variables such as the effects of location, age of lures versus participants, attractiveness of lures versus participants, as well as the level of sexual experience and relationship status of females, on compliance rates to sexual offers.
Most notably, it is congruent with evidence for sex differences in preferred mate age Kenrick and Keefe,female strategies and preferences in regard to extra-pair matings Greiling and Buss,and with a thirties peak in female sexual desire Schmitt, Housewives seeking real sex St Marys, Duntley, Tooke, Buss, Fisher et al. Scientific replications of the Clark and Hatfield studies on compliance to sexual offers, as conducted in and Clark and Hatfield, Studies Housewives seeking real sex St Marys and 2 and circa Clark,are certainly overdue. Such replications would be of great benefit since they would augment our knowledge of compliance, particularly when the above-mentioned characteristics, study features, and contextual variables are systematically investigated.
In conjunction with the necessity of scientific replication, apart from exact replications of the Clark and Hatfield experiments, novel approaches could also be implemented. For instance, sexual compliance rates have not been ly researched through the use of a survey-based format. Therefore, our goal was to investigate hypothesized sex differences in predictions of compliance using a written version of the three scenarios employed in the Clark and Hatfield studies. This novel approach is both interesting and legitimate, because extremely large sex differences in receptivity to sexual offers have not only been convergently evidenced by behavioral reactions the Clark and Hatfield experimentsbut also through responses on a questionnaire item as employed in the Mathes et al.
Three hundred and seventy-four Austrian adults, of which were males All of the participants were heterosexually oriented and Caucasian. Data collectors solicited participants for this study in various public locations, including shopping malls, bus stations, restaurant patios, and parks, in Vienna. Therefore, the resulting sample, although it was by chance arguably not representative, was a community-based sample from the urban population at large. Participants completed an anonymous, one- questionnaire and were subsequently thanked and debriefed.
Eligible participants i. Then, they completed a survey comprised of the three scenarios Date, Apartment Visit, and Casual Sex from the Clark and Hatfield experiments. The three conditions were written with a female requestor and a male receiver, and with a male requestor and a female receiver, resulting in six items that were counterbalanced for order. The vignette-like introduction to the items, appropriate for the sex of the requestor and receiver, read as follows here the text for female study subjects is given : «Please imagine the following scenario.
She is approached by a man of similar age, with ordinary looks, who is also neatly dressed. He tells her he has noticed her around and finds her to be very attractive. Then, he propositions her with the following questions: Would you go out with me tonight? How likely do you think she is to comply with his offer? By the end of the study, the participants had judged the likelihood of compliance for the six items and marked six scales. For clarity, we begin by presenting an overview of the data analyses. Secondly, we investigated whether participant responses on the six items correlated with their demographic information of age and relationship status.
We also determined whether there were differences for the three conditions with regard to the two sex of requestor and receiver combinations. For the three-item composite with the male requestor and female receiver, the alpha coefficient was. Only the Apartment Visit and the Casual Sex Items, both times with the requestor being male and the receiver being female, loaded substantially on the second factor, whereas the other four items had substantial loadings on only the first factor.
For male participants, age was negatively related to all compliance estimates, but statistically ificantly only for the Apartment Visit Item with female requestor and male receiver. Conversely, for female participants, age was ificantly negatively related to all compliance estimates. Therefore, partnered individuals generally provided lower compliance estimates than single individuals.
This effect was not qualified by any ificant two-way interactions of the within-subjects factor with the other de factors sex, or age, or relationship status or with the three-way interaction term with sex and relationship status. Single individuals generally stated higher compliance estimates for both requestor-receiver combinations of the Apartment Visit Item than partnered individuals, but the difference between these two groups was more pronounced when the requestor was female and the receiver was male than for the reverse.
The two other two-way interaction terms of the within-subjects factor age or sex and its Housewives seeking real sex St Marys interaction with sex and relationship status were inificant. This effect was again due to single individuals generally providing higher compliance estimates on both requestor-receiver combinations of the Casual Sex Item than partnered individuals, but this group difference was larger with the female requestor and male receiver than for the reverse.
The two further two-way interaction terms of the within-subjects factor age or sex and its three-way interaction with sex and relationship status were inificant. Age-adjusted mean compliance estimates for the total sample, following these analyses of covariance, for the Date, Apartment Visit and Casual Sex Items, are given in Table 2. In the Date Condition of the Clark and Hatfield experiments, The sex-specific descriptive statistics MMdnand SDalong with a test for sex-of-participant differences on the compliance rates for the Date Item as well as for the Apartment Visit and the Casual Sex Item in our data are set out in Table 3.
Sex-of-participant differences on the Date Item were statistically not ificant neither for the scenario with male requestor and female receiver nor for the reversed scenario with female requestor and male receiver. In the Apartment Visit Condition, 6. There was a ificant sex-of-participant difference on the Apartment Visit Item when the receiver was male and the requestor was female but not on the reversed scenario; table 3.
Again, there was a ificant sex-of-participant difference on the Casual Sex Item when the receiver was male and the requestor was female but not on the reversed scenario; table 3. In the present study, we extended the classic work of Clark and Hatfield and Clark on sex differences in sexual compliance to the domain of compliance prediction using survey techniques.
We asked participants to predict the consent rates of male and female receivers of offers Housewives seeking real sex St Marys in the three conditions Date, Apartment Visit and Casual Sex of the original Clark and Hatfield experiments. There are five main points of interest in the that will now be discussed. Firstly, the reliability figures for the composite of all six items, as well as for each of the two receiver-requestor orderings collapsed across the three items, were satisfactory for males and females.
This reliability indicates that participants provided sensible, orderly compliance estimates on the thermometer ratings. Without exception, the reliability coefficients were slightly higher for females than for males, indicating that female participants, relative to male participants, responded in a more systematic manner, resulting in highly intercorrelated compliance estimates.
These figures provide supportive evidence for the feasibility of the approach employed in this study. Secondly, the of the factor analysis suggested that, regardless of the sex of the requestor or receiver, female participants perceived all three conditions as a single entity.Housewives seeking real sex St Marys
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