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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Jennifer E. Suzanne C. Christopher T. Tami P. David L. This study examines motives for intimate partner violence IPV among a community sample of women who used IPV against male partners. All five motives were related to a greater frequency of perpetrating IPV. To develop effective interventions, researchers and service providers working with individuals who use IPV need to understand what the individuals themselves see as their reasons for committing aggressive behaviors.
The purpose of this study is to examine reasons and motives for IPV among a community sample of women who used IPV against male intimate partners. While reviewing these research findings, it is helpful to keep in mind that aggressors typically have multiple motives for their behavior Fiske, Other reasons for aggression, such as abusive relationships, likely are more distally related.
One of the primary functions of aggression in general, and IPV in particular, is to express strongly felt negative emotions, such as anger and frustration Fiske, ; Kimmel, Women who engage in IPV commonly report using violence to defend themselves from their partners Babcock et al. Similarly, in Stuart, Moore Dating woman 39 Angers al. We expect that women in our sample who report that self-defense is never a motive for their violence may be primary aggressors who commit more violence against partners than they receive.
These women likely have other, non-defensive motives for their violence, such as expressing negative emotions or control. They may commit higher levels of aggression, relative to women who do have self-defensive motives for their violence. In contrast, women who score high on the self-defense motive — that is, most of the time when they are aggressive, they are defending themselves - may be primarily victims. In response to their high levels of victimization, these women may commit more aggression than other groups for whom self-defense is not as prominent of a motive.
Women in between these two extremes may use aggression less than the other two groups. These women may be in more mutually aggressive relationships, in which both partners may become aggressive but neither has dominance or control over the other.
Some women use IPV in an attempt to control Dating woman 39 Angers partners. Stuart, Moore et al. While some individuals use aggression to increase their feelings of control or power, others attribute their aggression to a lack of control over their emotions and themselves Thomas, Follingstad et al. In a relationship characterized by IPV, a woman may use aggression to convey the message to her partner that she is not to be trifled with and that he had better take her seriously - there will be violent consequences if he tries to hurt her Thomas, Similarly, studies have found that a relatively small of women used IPV for purposes of intimidation.
An exploratory factor analysis described in the section indicated that the Motives and Reasons for IPV scale has five factors: expression of negative emotions, self-defense, control, jealousyand tough guise. We developed the following hypotheses: a All motive factors, except self-defense, will be positively related to the perpetration of physical aggression; b the self-defense motive factor will display a curvilinear relationship to the perpetration of physical Dating woman 39 Angers c all five motive factors will be positively related to the perpetration of psychological aggression; and d the motive factors of control and jealousy will be positively related to the perpetration of coercive control.
Sexual aggression is likely a qualitatively different form of aggression than physical or psychological aggression Frieze, Participants were recruited from a Northeastern city by placing English and Spanish-language brochures and posters in various locations, including medical clinics, stores, churches, libraries, restaurants, and laundromats throughout the city.
The average age of participants was The length of time that the participants had been with their partners ranged from four months to over twenty years; 9. A short telephone screening was conducted with participants to assess if they met criteria for inclusion in the study. Participants who met study criteria were invited to participate in face-to-face interviews.
Seventy-four of the Latina participants completed the interview in Spanish. The response scale for all items was: never 0once in the past six months 1twice in the past six months 2three to five times in the past six months 3six to ten times in the past six months 4more than ten times in the past six months 5or not in the past six months but it happened before 6.
The sixth option was recoded to zero, since this study specifically examined aggression committed in the past six months. The physical aggression perpetration and victimization scales each included 12 items. The reliability alphas for physical aggression perpetration and victimization in this study were. A sample item representing physical aggression is: Did you throw something at your partner that could hurt perpetration ; Did your partner throw something at you that could hurt victimization.
Psychological aggression was assessed by using both the psychological aggression subscale of the CTS-2 Straus et al. The PMWI has demonstrated adequate reliability and validity, and has discriminated between abused and non-abused women Tolman, The combined psychological aggression measure using items from both scales was more reliable than either the CTS-2 or the PMWI psychological aggression subscales.
Psychological perpetration and victimization in this study had reliability alphas of. An example of an item representing psychological aggression is: Did you insult or swear at your partner perpetration ; Did your partner insult or swear at you victimization. The coercive control perpetration and victimization scales each included seven items. In this study, coercive control perpetration and victimization had reliability alphas of.
Sexual aggression was examined with the SES Koss et al. The sexual victimization scale included 10 items. The victimization scale was developed with college populations Koss et al. Because high-level reading skills are necessary to understand the items Testa et al. The reliability alphas for sexual aggression perpetration and victimization in this study were. An example of an item representing sexual coercion is: Have you tried to make your partner have sex by using force, like twisting an arm or holding them down, or by threatening to use force perpetration ; Has your partner tried to make you have sex by using force, like twisting your arm or holding you down, or by threatening to use force victimization.
An exploratory factor analysis see below was conducted and indicated that a five-factor solution was the best fit. The items representing each of these factors are listed in Table 1. The final Motives and Dating woman 39 Angers for IPV scale had a total of 26 items and an overall reliability alpha of.
As explained further below, nine items were deleted from the measure after conducting the exploratory factor analysis. Responses for motive items were: never 0sometimes 1often 2and almost always 3. Responses for perpetration and victimization items were: never 0once in the past six months 1twice in the past six months 2three to five times in the past six months 3six to ten times in the past six months 4and more than ten times in the past six months 5. Responses for social desirability items were: strongly disagree 1disagree 2undecided or unsure 3agree 4and strongly agree 5.
The response scale ranged from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 5. EFA is used to identify latent constructs i. The final solution i. Because only 3. The five factors i. Polynomial equations relate X to Y by using transformed variables X 2X 3etc. By structuring nonlinear relationships in this way, it Dating woman 39 Angers possible to determine whether the relationship between X and Y is nonlinear, as well as the form of the relationship. In the current analyses, we tested for a curvilinear relationship between the self-defense motive factor and physical perpetration by centering the self-defense motive i.
Centering of predictors in this manner renders all regression coefficients in a polynomial regression equation meaningful by reflecting the regression function at the mean of the predictor. Centering also eliminates the extreme multicollinearity resulting from using powers of predictors in a single equation Cohen et al. The centered linear and polynomial forms of the self-defense variable were used as predictors in the regression analysis to test for the presence of a curvilinear relationship.
To determine the of factors on the Motives and Reasons for IPV scale, we first examined the eigenvalues for the correlation matrix based on all 35 items. Based on research that suggested the Kaiser criterion tends to overestimate the of factors as the of variables approaches 40 Stevens,the value of 7 was regarded as the upper limit for the of factors.
Next, we examined the scree plot as proposed by Cattel as a graphical method for determining the of factors. Cattel recommended retaining all eigenvalues in the sharp descent before the Dating woman 39 Angers at which the plot begins to level off. The plot suggested that a model containing factors was most appropriate for consideration. In EFA, the contribution of a variable to a given factor is indicated by both factor Dating woman 39 Angers and structure coefficients.
In factor analysis, the factor structure matrix gives the correlations between all observed variables and all extracted latent factors. When factors are orthogonally rotated, they remain uncorrelated, and the factor structure matrix will be an identity matrix, exactly matching the factor pattern matrix Gorsuch, However, when an oblique rotation is used, as in the current study, the factors are allowed to correlate with each other.
In such cases, the factor correlation matrix will not be an identity matrix, and the structure matrix will not equal the pattern matrix. To decide which items were ificant indicators of a factor i. After examining the matrices, the five factor model was considered best among other alternatives with regard to interpretability and other decision criteria. In large samples, a ificant chi-square is not necessarily indicative of poor model fit; see Barrett, Note : Factor loadings in bold represent items that were retained for that factor. To fit the EFA model in a CFA framework, one must use the same of restrictions as in an EFA model, where the of restrictions is equal to the of factors squared.
For our model we imposed 25 5 2 restrictions by: a fixing factor variances to a value of 1 for all five factors; b choosing an anchor item for each factor i. For our data, items 4, 6, 9, 11, and 14 were selected as anchors for their respective factors. This value was chosen so that the individual Type I error rate was approximately. The conservative Type I error rate protected against finding statistically ificant factor loadings simply by chance. To assess substantive ificance, we used the cutoff value of. Items not meeting these statistical and substantive ificance criteria or that ificantly loaded on multiple factors were dropped.
Considering ificance according to the cutoff values stated above, eight items 2, 7, 21, 24, 28, 30, 31, and 35 were unrelated to any factor and dropped. One item 22 reduced scale reliability and therefore was dropped.
We conducted an additional EFA using only the items that comprised the five factor structure. All five of the motive factors assessed were commonly viewed by the participants as motives for their aggression toward partners see Table 1 for descriptive statistics on the motive factors and individual items.
Eighty-three percent of women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their aggression, and around two-thirds stated their aggression was motivated by jealousy. It is clear that many participants indicated multiple motives for their perpetration of partner aggression. The participants endorsed an average of 14 of the 26 motive items in the final scale. Paired samples t tests were conducted to compare mean perpetration and victimization frequencies. Women reported that they were victims of sexual aggression and coercive control ificantly more than they perpetrated these types of aggression.
Hypothesis 1, that all motive factors except self-defense would be positively related to the perpetration of physical aggression, received support Dating woman 39 Angers Table 4. The motive factors — expression of negative emotions, control, jealousy, and tough guise — were ificantly and positively related to the perpetration of physical aggression after controlling for victimization from partners and social desirability, and added predictive utility to the model. To further assess the relationship between the self-defense motive and physical aggression perpetration as well as physical victimization, ANCOVAs were conducted.
Participants were divided into fourbased on their scores on the self-defense scale: participants who never endorsed self-defense as a motive 0 ; those who had low scores on the self-defense scale 1 ; those who had moderate scores on the self-defense scale 2 ; and those who had the highest scores on the self-defense scale 3. First, this variable was used to predict physical aggression, with physical victimization as a covariate. Post-hoc tests revealed the predicted curvilinear pattern: Participants who never endorsed self-defense as a motive, and those with the high scores on the self-defense scale, had ificantly higher frequencies of physical aggression perpetration than participants in the low and moderate.
Second, the four-category self-defense motive was used to examine the relationship between self-defense motives and physical victimization, while controlling for physical perpetration. Taken together, these indicate that participants who never use aggression in self-defense are highly aggressive, and experience low levels of victimization. Participants with the highest scores on self-defense are highly aggressive but also are very highly victimized; their Dating woman 39 Angers appears to be in self-defense.
Individuals in the middle two groups use aggression and are victimized at similar rates, and are less aggressive than those with the highest or lowest scores on self-defense. Hypothesis 3, that all five motive factors would be positively related to the perpetration of psychological aggression, also received partial support see Table 5. Expression of negative emotions, control, and tough guise were ificantly and positively related to the perpetration of psychological aggression after controlling for victimization from partners and social desirability, and added predictive utility to the model.
Contrary to our prediction, the jealousy motive was unrelated, and the self-defense motive was ificantly and negatively related to perpetrating psychological aggression toward partners. Hypothesis 4 was supported by the data see Table 6. The motive factors of control and jealousy were ificantly and positively related to the perpetration of coercive control after controlling for victimization from partners and social desirability, and added predictive utility to the model.
Table 7 provides a summary of the regression findings for sexual aggression perpetration. The tough guise motive factor was ificantly and positively related to the perpetration of sexual aggression after controlling for victimization from partners and social desirability, and added predictive utility to the model.
Participants in the present study perceived their aggressive behavior toward their partners as driven by complex, multiple motives. On average, women indicated that 14 of the motives and reasons for using aggression against their male intimate partners applied to them at least some of the time. Both proactive and defensive motives were very commonly endorsed. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a Motives and Reasons for IPV scale with excellent model fit and five theoretically meaningful factors: expression of negative emotions, self-defense, control, jealousy, and tough guise.Dating woman 39 Angers
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