Added: Renetta Angelo - Date: 25.07.2021 10:10 - Views: 33102 - Clicks: 1720
The family structure of African Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest. Among all newlyweds, According to data extracted from U. Census manuscripts, compared to white women, black women were more likely to become teenage mothers, stay single and have marriage instability, and were thus much more likely to live in female-headed single-parent homes. The current most widespread African-American family structure consisting of a single parent has historical roots dating back to Census reports reveal that between andmarried households Black people single of two-parent homes were the most widespread form of African-American family structures.
Single-parent homes, on the other hand, remained relatively stable until ; when they rose dramatically. In the Harlem neighborhood of New York City in85 percent of kin-related black households had two parents. Census data from reveal that more African-American families consisted of single mothers than married households with both parents.
The African-American segmented nuclear I unmarried mother and children and II unmarried father and children family structures are defined as a parent—child relationship. Billingsley's research continued with the African-American extended family structure, which is composed of primary members plus other relatives. Billingsley's research found that the extended family structure is predominantly in the segmented I sub-structured families. Billingsley's research revealed another type of African-American family, called the augmented family structurewhich is a family composed of the primary members, plus nonrelatives.
This structure also has the incipient, simple, segmented I, and segmented II sub-structures.
Billingsley introduced a new family structure that branches from the augmented family structure. This non-family household contains no relatives. In the United States there has been a historical disparity between black female and black male exogamy ratios. This traditional disparity has seen a rapid decline over the last two decades, contrasted with its peak in when the ratio was still Franklin Frazier has described the current African-American family structure as having two models, one in which the father is viewed as a patriarch and the sole breadwinner, and one where the mother takes on a matriarchal role in the place of a fragmented household.
InMcAdoo stated that African-American families are "frequently regarded as poor, fatherless, dependent of governmental assistance, and involved in producing a multitude of children outside of wedlock. Thomas, Krampe, and Newton relies on a survey that shows how the father's lack of presence has resulted in several negative effects on children ranging from education performance to teen pregnancy.
InHamer showed that many [ vague ] African-American youth did not know how to approach their father when in his presence. Quaylan Allan suggests that the continuous comparison of white hegemonic masculinity to black manhood, can also add a negative effect on the presence of the father in the African-American family structure . Melvin Wilson suggests that in the African-American family structure a mother's role is determined by her relationship status, is she a single mother or a married mother? According to Wilson, the married mother's tasks around the house is described as a full-time job.
This full-time Black people single of household responsibilities is often the second job that an African-American woman takes on. Wilson also notes that this responsibility that the mother has in the married family determines the life satisfaction of the family as a whole.
Though the role of a single mother is similar to the role of a married mother, to take care of household responsibilities and work a full-time job, the single mothers' responsibility is greater since she does not have a second party income that a partner would provide for her family members. According to Brown, this lack of a second party income has resulted in the majority of African American children raised in single mother households having a poor upbringing.
In Margaret Spencer's case study on children living in southern metropolitan areas, she shows that children can only grow through enculturation of a particular society. Spencer's research also concludes that African-American children have become subject to inconsistencies in society based on their skin color.
Similar to most races, challenges that African-American families experience are Black people single dependent on the children's age groups.
Jones, Zalot, Foster, Sterrett, and Chester executed a study examining the childrearing assistance given to young adults and African-American single mothers. Extended family members have an immense amount of responsibility in the majority of African-American families, especially single parent households. According to Jones, the reason these extended family members are included in having a necessary role in the family is because they play a key role in assuring the health and well-being of the children.
There are several hypotheses — both social and economic — Black people single the persistence of the current African-American family structure. Some researchers theorize that the low economic statuses of the newly freed slaves in led to the current family structure for African Americans. These researchers suggest that extreme poverty has increased the destabilization of African American families while others point to high female labor participation, few job opportunities for black males, and small differences between wages for men and women that have decreased marriage stability for black families.
Another economic theory dates back to the late s and early '60s, the creation of the "Man-in-the-House" rule; this restricted two parent households from receiving government benefits which made many black fathers move out to be able to receive help to support their families. These rules were later abolished when the Supreme Court ruled against these exclusions in the case of King vs Smith. Economic status has proved to not always negatively affect single-parent homes, however. Rather, in an census, there was a positive relationship between the of black single-parent homes and per-capita county wealth.
Other explanations incorporate social mechanisms for the specific patterns of the African American family structure. Some researchers point to differences in norms regarding the need to live with a spouse and with children for African-Americans. Patterns seen in traditional African cultures are also considered a source for the current trends in single-parent homes. As noted by Antonio McDaniel, the reliance of African-American families on kinship networks for financial, emotional, and social support can be traced back to African cultures, where the emphasis was on extended families, rather than the nuclear family.
Some researchers have hypothesized that these African traditions were modified by experiences during slavery, resulting in a current African-American family structure that relies more on extended kin networks. As a result, slaves were culturally adaptive and formed family structures that best suit their environment and situation. The American economists Walter E. Williams and Thomas Sowell argue that the ificant expansion of federal welfare under the Great Society programs beginning in the s contributed to the destruction of African American Black people single.
There are several other factors which may have accelerated decline of the black family structure such as 1 The advancement of technology lessening the need for manual labor to more technical know-how labor; and 2 The women's rights movement in general opened up employment positions increasing competition, especially from white women, in many non-traditional areas which skilled blacks may have contributed to maintain their family structure in the midst of the rise of the cost of living.
The rate of African American marriage is consistently lower than White Americans, and is declining. While research has shown that marriage rates have dropped for African Americans, the birth rate has not. Thus, the of single-parent homes has risen dramatically for black women. For African American women, the marriage rate increases with age compared to White Americans who follow the same trends but marry at younger ages than African Americans. One study found that the average age of marriage for black women with a high school degree was One type of marriage that has declined is the shotgun marriage.
For African Americans who do marry, the rate of divorce is higher than White Americans. While the trend is the same for both African Americans and White Americans, with at least half of marriages for the two groups ending in divorce, the rate of divorce tends to be consistently higher for African Americans. Overall, African Americans are married at a later age, spend less time married and are more likely to be divorced than White Americans. The decline and low success rate of black marriages is crucial for study because many African Americans achieve a middle-class status through marriage and the likelihood of children growing up in poverty is tripled for those in single-parent rather than two-parent homes.
The decline in social stigma of divorce has led to a decrease in the of legal barriers of getting a divorce, thus making it easier for couples to divorce. Structural barriers are often listed as the reason for the current trends in the African American family structure, specifically the decline in marriage rates. Imbalanced sex ratios have been cited as one of these barriers since the late nineteenth century, where Census data shows that inthere were 99 black males for every black females within the population.
Black male incarceration and higher mortality rates are often pointed to for these imbalanced sex ratios. The incarceration rate for African American males is 3, out of Black people single, compared to perWhite American males. For Washington, D. Because black males are incarcerated at six times the rate of white males, the skewed incarceration rates harm these black males as well as their families and communities.
Black people single can affect former inmates and their future in society long after they leave prison. Those that have been incarcerated lose masculinity, as incarceration can affect a man's confirmation of his identity as a father. After being released from prison, efforts to reestablish or sustain connections and be active within the family are often unsuccessful.
Incarceration can be damaging to familial ties and can have a negative effect on family relations and a man's sense of masculinity. Incarceration has been associated with a higher risk of disease, increased likelihood of smoking cigarettes, and premature death, impacting these former inmates and their ability to be normalized in society. The mortality rates for African American males are also typically higher than they are for African American females.
Between and4, to 27, more African American males died annually than African American females. The Moynihan Reportwritten by Assistant Secretary of Labor, Daniel Patrick Moynihaninitiated the debate on whether the African-American family structure le to negative outcomes, such as poverty, teenage pregnancy and gaps in education or whether the reverse is true and the African American family structure is a result of institutional discrimination, poverty and other segregation.
Eric Lincoln, the Negro family's "enduring sickness" is the absent father from the African-American family structure. Eric Lincoln also suggests that the implied American idea that povertyteen pregnancyand poor education performance has been the struggle for the African-American community is due to the absent African-American father.
According to the Moynihan Report, the failure of a male dominated subculture, which only exist in the African-American culture, and reliance on the matriarchal control has been greatly present in the African-American family structure for the past three centuries. Black single-parent homes headed by women still demonstrate how relevant the feminization of poverty is. Black women often work in low-paying and female-dominated occupations.
Thishowever, varied when considering race so that 5. While majority opinion tends to center on the increase in poverty as a result of single-parent homes, research has shown that this is not always the Black people single. In one study examining the effects of single-parent homes on parental stress and practices, the researchers found that family structure and marital status were not as big a factor as poverty and the experiences the mothers had while growing up.
There is consensus in the literature about the negative consequences of growing up in single-parent homes on educational attainment and success. For black high school students, the African American family structure also affects their educational goals and expectations. Some arguments for the reasoning behind this drop in attainment for single-parent homes point to the socioeconomic problems that arise from mother-headed homes.
Particularly relevant for families centered on black matriarchy, one theory posits that the reason children of female-headed households do worse in education is because of Black people single economic insecurity that because of single motherhood. Other theories point to the importance of male role models and fathers in particular, for the development of children emotionally and cognitively, especially boys. Additionally, emotional support from fathers is related to fewer delinquency problems and lower drug and marijuana use. Teenage and unplanned pregnancies pose threats for those who are affected by them with these unplanned pregnancies leading to greater divorce rates for young individuals who marry after having.
Another study found that paternal attitudes towards sexuality and sexual expression at a young age were more likely to determine sexual behaviors by teens regardless of maternal opinions on the matter. Teens who lived in a married family have been shown to have a lower risk for teenage pregnancy.
Bill Cosby has criticized the current state of single-parenting dominating black family structure.Black people single
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The Changing Profile of Unmarried Parents